» Back to School Work/Homework



The dictionary says that a mountain is ‘higher and steeper than a hill’.
It is a type of land (landform) that rises above the surrounding terrain.
Mountains usually have steep, sloping sides and sharp
or slightly rounded ridges and peaks.

How are Mountains Formed?
Types or Mountain
Mountains We've Climbed
Find Your Favourite Mountain
Highest Mountains
Mountain Ranges
Mountain Weather
Plants and Animals

This is the World's highest mountain, Mount Everest.

Generally, mountains are landforms that rise above 600 metres.
Mountains can be found on every continent and even beneath the sea.
Mountains are made in a number of different ways and there are several
different types of mountain.

Mountains are home to about one-tenth of the world’s people, they cover
one-fifth of the earth’s land surface, and can be found in 75 percent of the
world’s countries.
More than half of the world’s fresh water comes frommountains and all the
world's major rivers have their source in mountains.

How are mountains formed?

Mountains are created over long periods of time by tremendous forces in the earth.
Mountains are formed by volcanism, erosion, and disturbances or upliftas in the earth's crust.

The Earth's crust is made up of 6 huge slabs called plates, which fit together like a jigsaw puzzle.
When two slabs of the Earth's crust smash into each other the land can be pushed
upwards, forming mountains. Many of the greatest mountain ranges of the world have formed
because of enormous collisions between continents.

Dome Mountains

Dome mountains are the made when huge amount of melted rock pushes its way up
under the earth without getting folded or breaking. The result is a rounded dome.
As the dome is raised above surrounding land it is eroded. This erosion causes peaks
and valleys to form.

Fold Mountains

This is K2, the World's second highest mountain

Fold mountains are formed when two of the Earth's tectonic plates collide head on.
Their edges crumble just like a piece of paper folds when it is pushed together.
Examples of fold mountains include Himalayas in Asia, the Alps in Europe and
the Andes in South America

Fault-block Mountains

Mount Whitney in the Sierra Nevada

These mountains form when faults or cracks in the earth's crust force some
materials or blocks of rock up and others down.

Instead of the earth folding over, the earth fractures and the blocks are stacked on top of each other.
Examples of fault-block mountains include the Sierra Nevada mountains
in North America and the Harz Mountains in Germany.

Volcanic Mountains

Mount Kilimanjaro, the Highest mountain in Africa

Volcanic Mountains are formed when molten rock, or magma, deep within the earth,
erupts, and piles up on the surface.
Examples of Volcanic Mountains include Mount St. Helens in North America
and Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines.

Plateau Mountains (Erosion Mountains)

Slide Mountain

These are mountains that are really plateaus that have worn down from erosion
over millions of years.
These mountains are really large areas of very high flat land.

Back to the Top

When we are in Years 5 and 6 we have the chance to
climb mountains !

Yes Tor
Elevation (meters): 1085
Range: Snowdonia
Country: United Kingdom
Continent: Europe
Difficulty: Walk up
Best months for climbing: May, June, July, August, September
Nearest Town: Llanberis

Elevation (meters): 610
Range: Dartmoor
Country: United Kingdom
Continent: Europe
Difficulty: Walk up
Best months for climbing: February, March, May, June, July, December
Nearest Town: Okehampton

Snowdon is the highest mountain in Wales, located within the Snowdonia region.

Narrow ridges come from Snowdon's central peak, and several smaller peaks rise along these ridges.

The rugged beauty of the region, and the many quiet lakes that lie in its valleys, have made the area very popular with tourists.

There are lots of trails on the mountain, and if you don't want to walk you can reach the summit by train.

Yes Tor is one of the five tors on Dartmoor over 600m.

Dartmoor is a former mountain range from many millions of years ago when it was as high as Mount Everest. It has eroded away to about one 12th of their size leaving the granite tors behind.

Yes Tor is the second highest there and can be sen from many miles away making it far more distinctive compared to its peers.

Yes Tor is easy enogh in all conditions if you know what you are doing. Take care not to underestimate the moors as it is deep in dartmoor meaning that phone signals will not work and there are no roads so people can ill afford serious injury.

Dartmoors mountains offer very good scrambling and some good rock climbing too so be sure to check out the rocky neighbors.

If you want to find out about mountains in other parts of the world click here:

Back to the Top

These are the highest mountains on each of the Earth's continents:

8,850 m
South America
6,959 m
North America
6,194 m
5,895 m
5,642 m
4,897 m
4,884 m

What are the Highest, Tallest, and Largest Mountains on Earth ?

Back to the Top

Mountain Ranges

A mountain range is a group or chain of mountains that are close together.
Mountain ranges are usually separated from other mountain ranges by mountain
passes and rivers.

The Andes Mountains, which stretch more than 4,500 miles (7,200 km) through seven
South American countries, form the longest mountain range in the world.

The Himalayas

The Himalayas are the highest mountain range in the world. The world's highest mountain,
Mount Everest, is a part of the Himalayas.

The word Himalayas means "Land of Snow." It is the greatest mountain range in Asia and the home
to the highest (tallest) mountain peaks in the world. The range is 1500 miles long and runs
through Northeastern Pakistan, Northern India, Southern Tibet, Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan.
There are more than 30 peaks of the Himalayas which rise to heights of 7,620 m (25,000 ft) or more.

The Himalayas is one of the youngest mountain ranges in the world and it is still growing higher.
Mount Everest is growing by about 4mm a year which doesn't sound much but over ten thousand years thats 40 metres.
( The Earth is billions of years old so ten thousand years isn't really that long. )

They are growing because two of the Earth's plates are pushing together.
The Indian Plate is moving north and pushing the Eurasion Plate upwards.
Click on this image to see this happening:

The Himalayas seen from space.

The Alps

The Alps is a much smaller mountain range than the Himalayas but its the biggest inEurope, extending
over 750 miles (1,200 km) through South France, North Italy, Switzerland,
Liechtenstein, Germany, Austria and Slovenia.

The Alps includes several hundred peaks and glaciers, including numerous peaks over
12,000 feet, with Mont Blanc highest at 15,771 feet.

Mont Blanc is the higest peak in The Alps.

The Andes

The Andes Mountain Range is the longest and one of the highest mountain ranges in the world.
They are located in South America and stretch 4,500 miles (7,200 km) from north to south, along the west coast of the
continent.The Andes chain is generally about 200 miles (300 km) wide, except in Bolivia, where it is 400 miles wide.
The Andes are the second highest Mountain Range in the world with many peaks rising over 20,000 feet.

Mountain Ranges on Each Continent

Antarctica: Antarctic Peninsula, Transantarctic Mountains

Africa: Atlas, Eastern African Highlands, Ethiopian Highlands

Asia: Hindu Kush, Himalayas, Taurus, Elburz, Japanese Mountains

Australasia: MacDonnell Mountains

Europe: Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians, Apennines, Urals, Balkan Mountains

North America: Appalachians, Sierra Nevada, Rocky Mountains, Laurentides

South America: Andes, Brazilian Highlands

Back to the Top

Mountain Weather

The main differences in climate of mountains are temperature and moisture. Mountains usually have much
wetter climates than the flat land around them. They get more rainfall than low lying areas because the temperature
on the mountains is lower than the temperature at sea level. That is why you often see snow on the top of
mountains all year round. The higher the place is above sea level the colder it will be.

Climates change rapidly on mountains, becoming colder the higher the altitude gets. This happens because as you
get colder, air becomes thinner and is less able to absorb and hold heat.
The cooler the temperature the less evaporation there is meaning that there is more moisture in the air.
Some mountains reach higher than the clouds. At this altitude the extreme cold and high winds cause blizzards.

Because of the rapid changes in altitude and temperature on a mountain slope, many different ecological can be
found close together stacked on each other. Sometimes you can move from tropical jungles to bare rock, ice
and snow within only a few kilometres.
Tibet and the Himalayas and other mountain ranges such as the Rocky Mountains or the Andes
are good examples of this.

The weather can change very quickly on mountains. In just a few minutes a thunder storm can roll in
when the sky was perfectly clear and sunny, and in just a few hours the temperatures can drop from
extremely hot temperatures to temperatures that are below freezing.

Mountains can affect the climate of nearby lands. In some areas, mountains block rain, so that one side
of a mountain range may be rainy and the other side a desert.

Back to the Top

Plants and Animals

If you climb from the base to the peak of a big mountain, you will pass through a number of different types of plants.
These plants provide the habitat for the different animals which can be found at different heights.
This is what happens as you get higher and higher up a mountain:

The vegetation on the lower slopes depends on which climate zone the mountain is in.

The foothills may be covered in broadleaved forests.

On the upper slopes coniferous trees like spruce and pines.

As you climb higher it gets colder and colder and the trees eventually thin out and disappear.

The highest parts of the mountain support only sparse grasses and low-growing Alpine flowers
which can withstand the harsh conditions.

If the mountain is high enough all vegetation will disappear and the peak is bare and rocky and
perhaps covered in snow and ice.

Back to the Top


Climbers and tourists visit them for the scenery. Farmers graze their animals on them.
Water authorities make reservoirs and pump the water to towns and cities.
Forestry companies grow coniferous forests
and harvest wood on them.
There are also a lot of people living on them.

10% of the world's 6 billion people live on Mountains. That's 600 million people who rely on mountains
for their survival and welfare.
These people have adapted to living in the mountains just like plants and animals do.
A good example of this is the South American Uru tribe who have evolved
bigger hearts and lungs so they can breather the thin air at high altitudes.

Mountains can alos have a big affect on the people who live near them.
They make travel difficult.because Mountains can be very hard to cross.
They are often rugged and filled with forests and wild animals. The weather can
be very poor
and unpredictableand the mountains may have no
natural 'passes,' or easy places to cross so that is travel dangerous.

All this means that crossing over mountains - to trade goods or to fight a war - can be a hard thingto do.
The people who live on mountains can often become isolated from the rest of the world.


Mountains can aid tourism and bring in money for the people who live there.
More than 50 million people visit mountains each year. Many mountain
towns around the world depend on tourists to support them.
People in the town provide food and lodging for tourists who come to enjoy the nearby mountains.

Mountains can be places for leisure activities. Many people like to ski on mountains. Other people like
to climb mountains. Some people like to just visit mountains to take photos and admire their beauty.

Other activities include mountaineering, paragliding,
walking, hiking, bird watching, rafting,
mountain biking,
skiing, snow boarding, sledging, ice climbing and winter walking.

Tourism is good because .....
Tourism is bad because .....

it brings in a lot of money.
it c
reates jobs.
it encourages local crafts.

it improves living standards.

the environment can be permanently damaged.
the price of land and food gets higher.
of pollution from traffic.
the mountains get eroded.
litter gets dropped.
local people can lose their
cultural identity.

Back to the Top